6 Ways To Help Form a CRM Habit

“Does CRM have functionality that enables it to become a habit for users?”

Lack of user adoption has killed many an implementation. More than a decade and a half of research on Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems has churned out consistently troubling failure rates for CRM implementations. Since Gartner’s 2001 study found a 50% CRM failure rate, study after study has reported failure rates between 30% and 70%.

These numbers make a lot of would-be CRM adopters understandably nervous. After all, CRM is not cheap. (Quanta, CRM is Not a Magic Wand)

So, has CRM got the functionality to help us form a habit and increase adoption? I’ll look at how habits are formed and the CRM functionality that could help in this formation.

During this blog I’ll identify

  • What a habit is
  • How we form habits
  • If CRM has functionality that enables users form a CRM habit

Knowing this will enable us to deliver CRM solutions that are adopted by users and provide a return on investment.

What is a habit? 

R Andrews provides a definition. He suggests that from the standpoint of psychology a habit is:

‘a more or less fixed way of thinking, willing, or feeling acquired through previous repetition of a mental experience’ (Andrews, B. R., 1903)

How do we form habits?

Many studies have been completed about how we form habits. The Seger, C.A. and Spiering, B.J. (2011) article reviewed existing research on habit-formation, and concluded that it is encompassed by five characteristics:

  1. Inflexible: habit-learning has been described as relatively inflexible, in comparison to both goal-oriented behaviours which may be more pragmatic, and context-dependent learning.
  2. Slow: However, the author challenged this generalisation, suggesting that the speed of habit-formation is affected by a range of individual factors
  3. Unconscious: They suggest habit-learning is a form of non-declarative memory.
  4. Automatic
  5. Reinforcer Revaluation Insensitivity: once the habit is formed, it is difficult to alter.

The Lally, P., Van Jaarsveld, C.H., Potts, H.W. and Wardle, J. (2010) study aimed to contextualise habit-forming theories in real life. They found that repeating a behaviour in response to a cue appeared to be enough for many people to develop a habit. The range of times to reach a plateau shows that it can take a large number of repetitions for an individual to reach their highest level of automaticity. This means creating new habits will require self-control to be maintained for a significant period before the desired behaviours acquire the necessary automaticity to be performed without self-control.

Another study completed by Lally, P., Wardle, J. and Gardner, B. (2011) ‘Experiences of habit formation: a qualitative study’ analysed habit formation in a real-life context; in this case, participants were enrolled on a habit-based weight-loss programme.

It confirmed that ‘with repetition, the behaviours became more automatic and less effortful’. In real-world habit-formation, structuring behaviour around cues at the workplace is an effective strategy. It showed that removal from a specific schedule, for example at weekends, does have an impact on habit performance, but the habits returned when people went back to the workplace. It also showed that, in the habit loop, ‘cues’ can involve events, people, locations, activities and times.

But how long does it take to form new habits? A study completed by Kaushal, N. and Rhodes, R.E. (2015) ‘Exercise habit formation in new gym members: a longitudinal study’. looked to increase understanding relating to: (1) exercise behaviour, (2) habit formation and (3) habit predictors, in relation to gym-going. They found that exercising at least four times per week for approximately 6 weeks was required to establish an exercise habit. ‘Affect’ and consistency were most significant in this context in forming an exercise habit; either seeing positive effects of the exercise or exercising consistently enough to make the decision to exercise more of a sub-conscious one.

For the purpose of this paper we will use Charles Duhigg’s book ‘The Power of Habit’ to identify the key aspects of habit formation. He has used many of the previous studies mentioned and views habits as a process adopted by the brain to ‘power-save’. Research shows that brain activity changes when habits are formed; reduced activity due to a lack of conscious thought. (Duhigg, C. 2013)

Duhigg suggests that habits are formed through the ‘habit loop’ process

1)   Cue – First, there is a cue, a trigger that tells your brain to go into automatic mode and which habit to use.

2)   Routine – Then there is the routine, a set of actions which can be physical or mental or emotional.

3)   Reward – Finally, there is a reward, which helps your brain figure out if this particular loop is worth remembering for the future.

All aspects of the loop must occur for a habit to form. (Duhigg, C. 2013)

Duhigg also suggests other elements that help us form a new habit and uses several examples from advertising and experiments to develop an argument that the habit loop above in itself is not enough for new habits to form. Cue, routine and reward are the components that need to be present. However, a new habit is only formed if there is fuel to power it; craving.

Changing someone’s habit still seems a huge task even if there’s a craving. Keystone habits suggest that success doesn’t depend on getting everything right, but instead relies on picking one or two priorities, delivering them and using them as powerful levers, or “small wins” that set the scene for other small wins to happen. Keystone habits are foundational behaviours that you can build on to create a cluster of good habits.

A cluster of habits could be described as a routine. Good or bad routines are difficult to shift and are often completed subconsciously. At this point a habit is just something you do and can be difficult to describe when somebody asks. Changing a whole routine is difficult, Duhigg suggests book ending new with old habits. Embedding new habits into old ones helps make the new one just part of the routine. Especially if they create a fresh sense of identity and a feeling of ownership.

This fresh sense of identity can be even more powerful if the habit was formed as part of a society. Movements don’t happen because everyone suddenly aligns. They begin through friendship, they grow through communities and they are sustained by new habits that change participants’ sense of self.

Bringing it together – The six ways to help form a habit

We understand that a habit is essentially made up of three key elements (Cue, Routine, Reward). Its difficult to change a habit but the use of cravings, identifying keystone habits, book ending new habits with old and making it social all help us to form new ones.

How could we form a crm habit?

  1. Work out the key parts of the habit loop you want to modify – What’s the cue, routine, reward and craving. Routines are usually easy to identify as they’re observable behaviors, by and large. For example, if you’re looking at your sales process the
    • Cue would be picking up the phone to close a deal
    • Routine would be the sales process you follow during the deal
    • Reward would be the commission you get at the end of the process

All this could be built on a craving to earn more money or beat fellow team        members. The loop you want to modify should relate to a key strategy, policy or procedure to ensure its driven forward.

2. Work closely with users during the project – You should understand the habits they have when working with systems in their organisation. Could CRM sit in between two existing habits (used as book ends), making it feel a natural process. For example: you identify that users always log in to Outlook before opening another core system to complete the rest of the process. You have two habits in place:

  1. Open Outlook to start process eg: create an email and send it to the customer
  2. Open Core system to complete the order

In this example could the CRM app for outlook be used in the middle of this process to make life easier for the user:

  1. Open Outlook – Create an email
  2. Open the app within outlook
  3. Identify if there are any other opportunities for that customer
  4. Track the email against a contact/create a new contact
  5. Send email with a mention to the open opportunity
  6. Complete the process in the core system

Although adding additional steps you are helping to trigger the craving mentioned in point 1. As the project progresses you may want to take the rest of the process from the core system into Dynamics.

  1. Find the Key(Stone) – Changing habits is tough. Is there one habit that could spark “chain reactions” that help other good habits take hold. For example, could CRM load as soon as people log on in the morning. Seeing it as soon as someone logs on could encourage them to start using the system as soon as they start the day. This in turn could lead to them making some great suggestions on system improvements.
  2. Make the experience rewarding Does the new system save me time or help me identify leads quicker (thus making more money). This is a key part of the habit and ensures people use it as part of their routine.
  3. Avoid the big bang – The process starts before people use the system. Many people plan for a big CRM bang when they deliver the system. However, the evidence in this blog suggests that delivering small items will help people form the habit. This doesn’t mean you shouldn’t think big but it does mean that you should go live with manageable chunks that quickly deliver what you promised. In this case we may want to improve the sales process for all products but would focus on 1 or 2 key ones to start with.
  4. Plan for a long go live – Manage expectation and add as much time as possible to go live. This is a tricky one, but it does mean there’s more chance of a new crm system embedding itself. However, this doesn’t mean you sit their doing nothing. Get in and support users doing their day job, learn from them so the next portion of the go live is a success and use feedback to make changes to show them you’re listening.

Conclusion

This blog doesn’t offer ground breaking ideas, but it does help put a different twist on a passion of mine ‘User Adoption’. Many people have tech habits, how many people look at Facebook or Twitter as soon as they wake up and then open Outlook as soon as they log on at work? I believe the information here will help us all add CRM as part of that tech habit routine.

Get in contact if you’re struggling with user adoption

Great resources used to put this blog together

Print

Andrews, B. R. (1903) ‘Habit’. The American Journal of Psychology, 14(2), pp 121–49.

Duhigg, C. (2013) ‘The Power of Habit: Why we do what we do and how to change’. New York: Random House.

Gardner, B. (2015). A review and analysis of the use of ‘habit’ in understanding, predicting and influencing health-related behaviour. Health Psychology Review. 9(3), pp 277-295.

Seger, C.A. and Spiering, B.J. (2011) ‘A critical review of habit learning and the basal ganglia. Frontiers in systems neuroscience’, 5, p 66.

Yerkes, R.M. and Dodson, J.D. (1908) ‘The relation of strength of stimulus to rapidity of habit‐formation’. Journal of Comparative Neurology and Psychology, 18(5), pp 459-482.

Lally, P., Van Jaarsveld, C.H., Potts, H.W. and Wardle, J. (2010) ‘How are habits formed: Modelling habit formation in the real world’. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40(6), pp 998-1009.

Lally, P., Wardle, J. and Gardner, B. (2011) ‘Experiences of habit formation: a qualitative study’. Psychology, health & medicine16(4), pp 484-489.

Judah, G., Gardner, B. and Aunger, R. (2013) ‘Forming a flossing habit: an exploratory study of the psychological determinants of habit formation’. British journal of health psychology18(2), pp 338-353.

Gardner, B. and Lally, P. (2013) ‘Does intrinsic motivation strengthen physical activity habit? Modelling relationships between self-determination, past behaviour, and habit strength’. Journal of Behavioural Medicine, 36(5), pp 488-497.

Kaushal, N. and Rhodes, R.E. (2015) ‘Exercise habit formation in new gym members: a longitudinal study’. Journal of Behavioural Medicine, 38(4), pp 652-663.

Dreisbach, G. and Bäuml, K.H.T. (2014) ‘Don’t do it again! Directed forgetting of habits.’ Psychological Science, 25(6), pp 1242-1248.

Websites

How to break your worst work habits, Emily Triplett Lentz (2016). Accessed 23/9/18 https://www.lifehacker.com.au/2016/08/how-to-break-your-worst-work-habits

Who’s responsible for our tech habits? Its complicated. Accessed 2/10/18

https://www.wired.com/story/whos-responsible-for-your-bad-tech-habits-its-complicated

Quanta, CRM is Not a Magic Wand. Accessed 9/10/18

https://www.quantacrm.com/2018/01/31/why-crm-implementations-fail

Keystone Habits: 7 Small Changes That Create Big Results. Accessed 12/11/18

https://liveboldandbloom.com/08/habits/keystone-habits

 

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7 Things to Consider When Bringing Data into CRM

One of the biggest selling points of CRM is the ability to create a single view of the customer, data is key to making this happen. This blog covers things that you should consider during and after your implementation.

It’s probably not a good idea to simply move all data from one system into CRM without understanding what you need. For one thing, moving the data from one place to another could prove expensive.

Data is something that should be thought about during the whole process of delivering a CRM system. The questions below, along with your process-mapping and specification phases, will help you on the journey.

  1. Does it need a scrub? It’s unlikely that the data you move is going to perfect so what’s the best way to cleanse it before you use it?
  2. Should it be access all areas? Should all users see the data or are there occasions when it should be locked down?
  3. Where should it be held? Should it all be put into CRM or just certain information or will a view of the data (held in another systems/data warehouse) be good enough?
  4. Does it need to be in CRM to fulfil any reporting requirements?
  5. How often should it be updated? If data is held elsewhere how often should CRM be updated, some data needs to be updated live e.g. contact information such as telephone numbers, email addresses while other information can come in overnight.
  6. What should you do with data at go live? From day one, you may need data from your old system as well as CRM. You need to decide whether to manage it in the old system until they reach the end of a process or move it straight into your new CRM system and finish the process there.
  7. How long should you keep it? Do you really need CRM data for 10 years? It’s worthwhile putting retention rules in place as early as possible. Too much data can affect system performance and is generally useless to users and those reporting on it. Some of this will be a judgement call, in other situations there could be legal or sector reasons for holding on to the data. Whatever you decide you must work within the law.

There are lots of ways to manage the data you have in CRM from creating views/iframes using out of the box functionality to importing it directly into the system. If you know what data you want (and looking to move online) then  Scott Durows video on the data export service might be for you.

9 Things To Consider When Creating a CRM Specification (spec)

Now you’ve got a handful of processes, owned by a key team, you’re in a good position to start writing the spec. In this blog I’ll cover 9 things you should consider.

A good spec. lets suppliers and colleagues know exactly what the new system will look and feel like. It also helps the testing and roll- out phase of the project. You can use it to create test scripts and identify any issues.

During my first implementation I knew what we needed but didn’t have a clear idea of how I would put this on paper. The key thing here is to work with suppliers and colleagues in the business to come up with a document you all understand. Add as much detail as possible, consider legacy data and other systems so you end up with a great first run at it.

Before you get to the nine items I’ve added a few other things to consider as you walk through the spec. You can tailor each one to your needs, level of integration and what you’d like to achieve. But they should help you get off the ground.

Are you looking to build a new entity or adapt a current one?

See what you can use ‘out of the box’. Bespoke CRM systems are difficult to maintain and can make upgrading slightly more difficult. However, sometimes it needs to be done to get the process, security, or outcome you need.

A new entity

Will this sit in the sales arena or is it more service? Would you go to a person record to access your new entity or is it attached to an organisation?

Amending a current entity

This can make life easier because you’ll know how that entity should react and what it’s capable of doing. Be careful not to be too reliant on a single entity. Overloading them with fields, workflows, views, or scripts can affect system performance. There are several functions available to get the outcome you need without the cost and time of developing.

Here are the 9 things to consider when putting you together the spec:

  1. The fields users need;
  • What type of field (text, numerical, picklist etc.)?
  • What information will be held in them?
  • Should they be a certain format (e.g. you don’t want users entering 2 numbers into a mobile phone number field)

I prefer to use picklists (option sets); they keep data clean and users can quickly become confident. Use your process maps to choose the fields you’ll need and what information to store in them. I try to avoid free text fields; they can be tricky to report on and the text in them can be open to interpretation. Beware…users love them!

You may also want fields to call functions or act differently depending on the information provided. For example, selecting ‘yes’ on a Boolean field may open another section of the form or display another field (attribute)

Use fields sparingly. They can quickly clutter the form and ruin the user experience. Less is more if the product does what you need it to.

  1. Information you’ll report on

What reports will you need? Refer to the key aims of your CRM delivery;

  • Do you need to add certain fields/functions to get the reporting you need?
  • Should fields be populated all the time or only under certain circumstances?

If the information isn’t available, the reports will be weak. This can negatively affect the attitude of senior teams to CRM….and user adoption.

  1. Workflows

Workflows are great. They can be simple (if I’m involved) or complex. They aren’t essential but can make for a richer user experience. For example, a workflow can be triggered to notify other departs if a customer says they’re going to make a payment on a set date. No need to remember the name of all 15 colleagues who need to receive an email; the workflow can send a task to other users, teams or queues. I’d note all the workflows you need. Some can happen when a record’s created or the value of a field changes, the choice is yours. Just make sure you clearly explain what you expect the flow to do.

  1. Data from other systems

Some users may feel every piece of information should be pulled from your legacy system into your shinny new CRM system. Sometimes, they’ll be right. Before you jump in and create masses of integration, it’s worth considering if a view or Iframe is more appropriate. When you spec out a view, you need to identify the data required (down to field level) and where it’s stored. Work with users to understand what they need and when they need it. You also need to know the entity the view should be available on. For example, should it be added to the contact entity to answer more queries first time?

  1. Any JavaScript required?

At a basic level, script can help manage what CRM displays at certain times. It can trigger actions but it’s such a vast subject that I’d suggest further reading to get a better understanding for example “JavaScript: The Definitive Guide” by David Flanagan . Personally, I use limited script. It’s very easy to have a flash CRM user experience but you also have to maintain it. As you make changes to the system, you may have to unpick the script you spent time and money developing. As CRM software develops more out of the box functionality is becoming available to do much of the work currently done by jscript.

  1. Out of the box vs bespoke

Looking back, I knew I wanted to build a CRM solution which met everyone’s needs and was essentially a reflection of the old way of doing things. There are companies who rip everything out of CRM and build from the ground up. If this suits your business, go for it. However, there are numerous out of the box functions you can use from day one without spending £000’s. This issue is compounded when you try to upgrade and need to test all the bespoke functions, entities and scripts. Take some time to reflect on the product and functions which could deliver the processes you mapped at the start of the project. There are plenty of conferences, demos and companies out there who are willing to help and advise.

  1. Managing legacy data

This is another enormous and complicated topic. Work with the team to identify the data they need in CRM. You can limit access to the old data and then remove it completely once you’ve adopted CRM. Add this to a more long-term plan so you don’t have old data hanging around waiting to cause trouble.

  1. Phasing out legacy systems

Identify the impact on any other systems when you change CRM. This may not be an issue day one but, as CRM grows, it will start to integrate with other systems.

Pull everyone in early if you know which systems the project will impact. You won’t know everything (who does?) so invite the teams to offer input and advice as it may affect costs and timescales. Installing CRM may improve other systems but be aware these changes may mean additional users need training.

  1. Security

CRM provides various options when it comes to security. From field level to entity, teams or organisations. This, like most of CRM, will be very specific to the piece of work you’re doing. Although data protection is something you must follow, you don’t want to prevent users from getting access to the information which will make it easy for them to do a great job.

Create a security matrix to understand who should have access to different parts of the system.

The finished specification can look confusing. A simple mock-up of the system can help ‘visual’ learners and encourage the discussion to flow. You don’t need anything complicated; a simple spreadsheet with rough colour schemes and field layouts can help colleagues understand how the product will work.

As the build starts, you’ll understand how the system will be used and the benefits it will bring. Track these and communicate them to all the stakeholders.

If you found this blog useful don’t forget to leave a comment or take a look at the ebook I’ve written to help those non techies about to start their CRM system journey.

7 Key Roles For Your CRM Project Team

startup-photos.jpgYou’ve identified everyone’s needs/wants and the strategy CRM will be driven by…it’s now time to create the dream team! This blog explores the key roles you’ll need to get your system up and running and tips on building your team.

So how do you get the ball rolling? First you’ll need to Identify who needs to be involved and what skills/experience you need at the table. Id suggest these roles as a minimum;

  1. Senior manager/sponsor – Reports back at a strategic level and has overall responsibility for the project.
  2. Project manager – Responsible for delivering the project
  3. People from the team who’ll use CRM – You’ll need them to advise on the process, test the system and train users.
  4. Someone from departments affected by the new way of working
  5. A critical friend – This could be someone not linked with the project but part of the company, someone you met researching CRM or someone who’ll bring some great challenges to the table. Their job is to understand the changes and then identify better ways of working.
  6. Supplier – They’ll provide the support to get you off the ground and guide you through the process. However, it’s the PM’s job to keep the project focused.
  7. IT/Technology – Invite the key people in early; they’ll provide advice and guidance and will be key in the roll out of CRM.

The team should reflect how you’ll deliver CRM. If you’re rolling out a department at a time (something I’d suggest), you need to get people from that team involved. Provide cover for those colleagues so they can focus on the project.

Don’t forget to identify how touch points impact other teams/departments. It’s rare for one team to work in a silo. Consult everyone involved in the process or bring them into the main project team. Include them at go live or in a phase shortly after if they are a big part of what the initial team do. Involving ‘critical friends (colleagues not linked to the delivery of dynamics) will bring other view points and ways of working to the table making your CRM system stronger for it.

Here are a five golden rules for building a great team once you have them in place.

Want to find out how to get the best out of your new team? This bookThe Best Team Wins, The New Science of High Performance’ by Adrian Gostick, Chester Elton  may help, they studied more than 850,000 employee engagement surveys to develop their “Five Disciplines of Team Leaders”, explaining how to recognise and motivate different generations to enhance individual engagement; ways to promote healthy discord and spark innovation; and techniques to unify customer focus and build bridges across functions, cultures, and distance.

 

Hopefully this blog has given you a few things to consider before you put your team together. Spend time developing the team and you’ll be up and running with CRM before you know it. Now its over to you…

Leave a comment on this blog about your experiences of brilliant team leaders

11 Tips for delivering CRM to a team

A few tips for working with a team to deliver CRM

  1. Sit with them: Get a deep understanding of how they work and what they expect from CRM. This could be via process mapping or shadowing.
  2. Identify what they need to report: This will help show CRM has been a success
  3. Identify any improvements to the way they work: What out of the box technology could they use to make life easier? Dashboards, templates etc.
  4. Put the detail into a spec: Provides you/your supplier with clear guidelines
  5. Create a proof of concept: A visual will help engage the team. Use your sandbox environment, or excel to show how CRM will work.
  6. Tweak the proof of concept: Make amendments and take it back to the team to review. Use real-world scenarios to check that the concept works.
  7. Develop the product: The feedback from your proof of concept and spec will walk you/supplier through this part of the process.
  8. Test, test and test again: Test and resolve any problems, doing this shows the users you’re listening to feedback.
  9. Create a go live support plan for the first week: Sit with the team and deal with issues as they come up.
  10. Monitor use for the first 3 months: By this time CRM should be part of the job
  11. Listen & Act: Book any changes 2 months after go live. This helps identify if the changes are required or just part of the learning curve

CLICK HERE to get your copy of Delivering CRM – A short read designed to help non techies deliver a CRM system